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    Name Description
    GQL Graph Query Language, another and the only standard data query language since SQL (Structured Query Language).
    UQL (uQL) Ultipa Graph Query Language, a kind of GQL that can fully operate Ultipa Graph system.
    Node In graph theory, a node is formally called a 'vertex'. In Ultipa Graph, we call vertex 'node'.
    Edge Edge connects a pair of nodes, there are (1) directed edge and (2) un-directed edge (see the description of 'Direction' below).
    Path Path is a sequence with definite start node and end node, alternating between nodes and edges. Nodes in the path can repeat while edges cannot. The sequence of the nodes and edges in a path can be regarded as a unique identifier of the path.
    Circle A path has circle means there is node in the path repeats at the locations that are neither the start nor the end. Paths with circles can be filtered out by using the parameter no_circle() in a path query command so they will not be returned. For example:
    Graph Dataset of nodes and edges is called graph. Graph can be viewed as a data collection of multiple paths. The smallest unit of graph is node.
    Subgraph Subgraph is a part of the whole graph's nodes and edges. The result of node query and edge query is considered as a subgraph.
    GraphSet A GraphSet comprises a set of nodes and edges along with indexes, user privilleges and algorithmic tasks created on the graph. In Ultipa Graph system, user can create more than one GraphSet.
    Schema In Ultipa Graph system, a schema of node or edge includes a set of properties that describe the structure and content of node or edge. Each node or edge can only belong to one schema.
    Property A property belongs to a schema and is used to describe the character of nodes or edges. Property supports rich data types such as int32, float, string, and some data structures such as array, dictionary.
    Property Index Index mechanism is used to improve the query efficiency of properties, the created index tree is stored on the disk.
    Full-text Index Full-text index (word-segmentation of the text) is created to improve the query efficiency of long strings. Full-text index supports different dictionaries in order to optimize the word-segmentation for different datasets.
    Engine Index Improving the efficiency of Path Query and Deep Graph Traversal by loading properties to the computing engine, the efficiency is often increased by several orders of magnitude.
    Instance Ultipa Graph system instances, that is, the running applications on Ultipa Server, each instance generally runs on one virtual or physical host, and multiple instances can form a cluster environment.
    Filter It is used to filter nodes and edges during graph queries. Ultipa Filter is essentially a logic tree, very much like IF in programming languages, uses various conditional operators, logical operators and numeric operators. Refer to Chapter 4 for details.
    LTE Load to Engine, load properties to the computing engine.
    UFE Unload from Engine, remove properties from the computing engine.
    Direction (In) An edge pointing to node A from another node is call an 'In' edge of node A, or an edge of node A in the inbound direction. It is written as either A<-- or -->A.
    Direction (Out) An edge pointing from node A to another node is call an 'Out' edge of node A, or an edge of node A in the outbound direction. It is written as either A--> or <--A.
    Direction (Left) An edge in a given path that points from the latter point to the previous point is called 'Left' edge. It is written as A<--B.
    Direction (Right) An edge in a given path that points from the previous point to the latter point is called 'Right' edge. It is written as A-->B.
    ID (_id) Unique identifier exclusive to the node. It is stored as string.
    UUID (_uuid) Unique identifiers for nodes and edges. It is stored as uint64.
    Edge Start (_from, _from_uuid) The ID or UUID of the start node of directed edge.
    Edge End (_to, _to_uuid) The ID or UUID of the end node of directed edge.
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